Monday, September 30, 2019
Social mobility refers to change in an individual's social class position either between their own and their parents' social class or over the course of their working career. Social mobility has taken place between my grandmother, my mother, and me. My grandmother did not finish high school and she became an apartment manager. My mom finished high school and was able to start her own cleaning business. I am currently attending college and I work for a nonprofit organization as a disability services professional.My mom experienced upward social mobility. My grandmother managed an apartment complex for most of her life. My mom was more successful than her mother. My mom finished school and went on to start and run her own cleaning business. I am currently on my way up the success ladder to experience upward social mobility. I am currently attending college for business administration. When I am finished, I hope to be a successful business woman. Within the past three generations of my family, we have not experienced any downward social mobility.My mom was able to be more successful than her mother and I plan to be more successful than my mother. Structural mobility refers to change in society that allows large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder. Structural mobility has also taken place between my grandmother, my mother, and me. My mother moved up the social class ladder because she was more successful than her mother. Because she was more successful, she had a broader social class of friends. I also moved upward on the social class ladder.With todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, it is much harder to find a social class to fit in to. I have been fortunate enough to have a numerous variety of friends from different social classes because I attend college, and because of my work profession. Exchange mobility occurs when large numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder, but, on balance, the proportions of the social classes remain about the sam e. Right now, I do not think that my family is experiencing exchange mobility.It seems that our social classes are not balancing out. Since my mother moved up the ladder and I am also moving up the ladder; that means my families current social classÃ¢â¬â¢s ratio is 2:1. If I have a daughter later on in life, she will become the fourth generation of my family. If my daughter was unable to be as successful as I am, that would mean that she would move down the social class ladder. This would make our family experience exchange mobility because our social classÃ¢â¬â¢s ratio would then be 2:2.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In the 13 century a small tribe from the steppes of central Asia conquered much of the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The tribe was known as the Mongol warriors. The Mongols were ruthless and very barbaric. While the Mongols conquered many countries they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care who they hurt. Even though they did benefit some of the areas that they conquered, they did too many bad things that over powered the good things. Their law was very confusing and at some parts it was unreasonable.They would torture survivors and they conquered more land than any of the greatest world conquest. As ruthless as the Mongols could be, to my surprise they were quite organized as a union. In documents 2 and 3 it talks about how the army should be organized and how they go out to war and fight. John of Plano Carpini wrote in document 2 that the Mongol organization was very precise and strict. For example 1 man was in charge of 10 men and 10 men were in charge of 100 men and if one member of the group fai ls or tryÃ¢â¬â¢s to run away they would kill the whole group.This statement proves that the Mongols were all about war and rules. Document 3 talks about already being on the battle field. In the passage it says Ã¢â¬Å"chiefs or princes of the army do not take part in the fighting but take up their stand some distance away facing the enemyÃ¢â¬ . The Mongols were very smart people for example to make their fighting group look bigger and to give out a scary impression they would put figures of men and set them on horses.They would also send a group ahead to start the fight and when they enemy would get tired a new and fresh set of Mongol warriors would appear to continue the fight. Sometimes they would even take the fat of the people they killed and melt it then throw it on houses and wherever the fire falls on the fat it is almost inextinguishable thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they call it Ã¢â¬Å"Greek FireÃ¢â¬ which proves just how ruthless and barbaric they truly were.John of Plano Carpi ni probably wrote both of these passages because he was the first European to visit the Mongols in their homeland and got to experience the ways of the Mongols first handedly in the point of view of a non-Mongol. In documents 1, 4 and 5 it talks about the amount of conquered land and the number of tragic deaths or just the death caused by the Mongols in general. Document 1 shows all the big invaders of history and how much they invaded in a chart and it shows that Genghis khan took the lead with 4,860,000 square miles, ahead of alexander the great, Adolf Hitler and Cyrus the great.It also shows a graph of the Mongol empire after the death of Genghis khan and the land was divided into 4 parts for his grandsons which helps us prove that he was all about proceeding his role and the bigger the amount of land he had the better which sounds really selfish and mean. The next document which is doc. 4 is a passage from Ata-Malik Juvaini who was a Persian chronicler who was in the employ of t he Mongol II-khan of Persia who served under the Mongols rule as the governor of Bagdad. The passage informs us about the invasion between the Mongols and the city of Nishapur, a city in Persia.It states that Nishapur had a good defense system with three thousand crossbows, three hundred mangonels, and a quantity of missiles and naphtha but that still wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to defeat the attack of the Mongols which clearly shows how powerful they were. A time later after the attack there were walls covered in Mongols and they began to slay and plunder the people and even worse they drove out all the men, women, and children who survived out into the plains where killed them all and if that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t prove that he was ruthless then I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what will.The next evidence that Ata-Malik Juvaini provided for us is a chart of different places that were attacked and how much people died and or if there were no survivors. Juvaini wrote the passage because he got to see what was going on but what I would have liked more is a passage from a Mongol soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view to see if some of the soldiers thought that what they were doing was a bit too extreme. In document 5 the Mongols were once again demonstrating another act of inhumane cruel behavior.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a scene from a Persian manuscript showing the Mongols soldiers shoot some of the survivors with arrows while they also buried the rest of the survivors upside down in the ground face first and to be honest it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound so comfy. Even though historians like myself try everything in their power to set the record straight about the Mongols being ruthless barbarian there is always a group of people who dare to argue. They say that the Mongols benefited many of the places that the conquered like for example the Persian silk industry also benefited from the Mongol conquest by all the contacts that opened up with china.Another benefit is that Persian winemakers thrived under the Mongol co ntrol because the Mongols were such heavy drinkers (doc. 6) and the list from there goes on and on at least that what they say. They also say that the Mongols did demonstrate some act of kindness like the fact that the leader of the Mongol empire, GenghisÃ¢â¬â¢ khan, outlawed any acts that involved theft and adultery. Ibn Battuta said that if you lost something on your way expect it to be brought to you because the law against theft was that strict (doc.7).They also created or started up messaging systems. First they would send a man 25 miles to the posting station but in their language it was called yams. Once the man arrive, he packs the mail onto the horses and they take it from there. If they ever come across a lake or a river then the messengerÃ¢â¬â¢s must pass through with ferry boats that are kept by neighboring cities (doc 8). The thing that sold the Mongols good act to many people was the fact that the Mongols was tolerant of many religious.In what looks like a journal it gives us proof that Mongke Khan, who was the fourth great Khan, gave a speech saying Ã¢â¬Å"But just as God gave different fingers to the hand so has He given different ways to men. Ã¢â¬ (Doc 9) What all of these documents have in common is that they showed what the Mongols did to benefit many places that they conquered and yes they did contribute a lot but they did too much wrong to forget the fact that they are ruthless killers. Many of the Mongols laws also showed evidence that they were strict, ruthless, and unreasonable people.Like on their laws about adultery it says that whoever commits the crime of adultery they shall be executed. But it also says that if you are a non-believer and you want to get with the married woman then you have to kill her husband first. Another outrageous fact about their law that I found out about is that the man could have as many wives as he can keep. It was a general custom for them to marry any of their relationships except with their mothe r, daughter, or sister but they could still marry their step sister and his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s wives but only after the father has passed.To the Mongols, drunkenness is considered an honor among their fellow people. (Doc 10) This whole article clearly proves that the Mongols were very weird, disgusting, and uncivilized barbarians. Even though the Mongols conquest did benefit the conquered lands by giving religious tolerance, outlawing theft and adultery and a little bit more but it still doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t wipe away the fact that they were cruel with the way they treated survivors and the number of deaths that were caused by them.Also it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t change the fact that they have took away so many home and live from the people of the lands that they have conquered. Last barbaric act that they have committed is that their laws to their people were uncivilized I mean 1 man could have as many wives as he could hold and their punishments all led to execution. So through all of this evidence it clearly shows that the Mongols were in fact ruthless barbarians. Mongols are Ruthless and Barbarians In the 13 century a small tribe from the steppes of central Asia conquered much of the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The tribe was known as the Mongol warriors. The Mongols were ruthless and very barbaric. While the Mongols conquered many countries they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care who they hurt. Even though they did benefit some of the areas that they conquered, they did too many bad things that over powered the good things. Their law was very confusing and at some parts it was unreasonable.They would torture survivors and they conquered more land than any of the greatest world conquest. As ruthless as the Mongols could be, to my surprise they were quite organized as a union. In documents 2 and 3 it talks about how the army should be organized and how they go out to war and fight. John of Plano Carpini wrote in document 2 that the Mongol organization was very precise and strict. For example 1 man was in charge of 10 men and 10 men were in charge of 100 men and if one member of the group fai ls or tryÃ¢â¬â¢s to run away they would kill the whole group.This statement proves that the Mongols were all about war and rules. Document 3 talks about already being on the battle field. In the passage it says Ã¢â¬Å"chiefs or princes of the army do not take part in the fighting but take up their stand some distance away facing the enemyÃ¢â¬ . The Mongols were very smart people for example to make their fighting group look bigger and to give out a scary impression they would put figures of men and set them on horses.They would also send a group ahead to start the fight and when they enemy would get tired a new and fresh set of Mongol warriors would appear to continue the fight. Sometimes they would even take the fat of the people they killed and melt it then throw it on houses and wherever the fire falls on the fat it is almost inextinguishable thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they call it Ã¢â¬Å"Greek FireÃ¢â¬ which proves just how ruthless and barbaric they truly were.John of Plano Carpi ni probably wrote both of these passages because he was the first European to visit the Mongols in their homeland and got to experience the ways of the Mongols first handedly in the point of view of a non-Mongol. In documents 1, 4 and 5 it talks about the amount of conquered land and the number of tragic deaths or just the death caused by the Mongols in general. Document 1 shows all the big invaders of history and how much they invaded in a chart and it shows that Genghis khan took the lead with 4,860,000 square miles, ahead of alexander the great, Adolf Hitler and Cyrus the great.It also shows a graph of the Mongol empire after the death of Genghis khan and the land was divided into 4 parts for his grandsons which helps us prove that he was all about proceeding his role and the bigger the amount of land he had the better which sounds really selfish and mean. The next document which is doc. 4 is a passage from Ata-Malik Juvaini who was a Persian chronicler who was in the employ of t he Mongol II-khan of Persia who served under the Mongols rule as the governor of Bagdad. The passage informs us about the invasion between the Mongols and the city of Nishapur, a city in Persia.It states that Nishapur had a good defense system with three thousand crossbows, three hundred mangonels, and a quantity of missiles and naphtha but that still wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to defeat the attack of the Mongols which clearly shows how powerful they were. A time later after the attack there were walls covered in Mongols and they began to slay and plunder the people and even worse they drove out all the men, women, and children who survived out into the plains where killed them all and if that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t prove that he was ruthless then I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what will.The next evidence that Ata-Malik Juvaini provided for us is a chart of different places that were attacked and how much people died and or if there were no survivors. Juvaini wrote the passage because he got to see what was going on but what I would have liked more is a passage from a Mongol soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view to see if some of the soldiers thought that what they were doing was a bit too extreme. In document 5 the Mongols were once again demonstrating another act of inhumane cruel behavior.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a scene from a Persian manuscript showing the Mongols soldiers shoot some of the survivors with arrows while they also buried the rest of the survivors upside down in the ground face first and to be honest it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound so comfy. Even though historians like myself try everything in their power to set the record straight about the Mongols being ruthless barbarian there is always a group of people who dare to argue. They say that the Mongols benefited many of the places that the conquered like for example the Persian silk industry also benefited from the Mongol conquest by all the contacts that opened up with china.Another benefit is that Persian winemakers thrived under the Mongol co ntrol because the Mongols were such heavy drinkers (doc. 6) and the list from there goes on and on at least that what they say. They also say that the Mongols did demonstrate some act of kindness like the fact that the leader of the Mongol empire, GenghisÃ¢â¬â¢ khan, outlawed any acts that involved theft and adultery. Ibn Battuta said that if you lost something on your way expect it to be brought to you because the law against theft was that strict (doc.7). They also created or started up messaging systems. First they would send a man 25 miles to the posting station but in their language it was called yams. Once the man arrive, he packs the mail onto the horses and they take it from there. If they ever come across a lake or a river then the messengerÃ¢â¬â¢s must pass through with ferry boats that are kept by neighboring cities (doc 8). The thing that sold the Mongols good act to many people was the fact that the Mongols was tolerant of many religious.In what looks like a journal it gives us proof that Mongke Khan, who was the fourth great Khan, gave a speech saying Ã¢â¬Å"But just as God gave different fingers to the hand so has He given different ways to men. Ã¢â¬ (Doc 9) What all of these documents have in common is that they showed what the Mongols did to benefit many places that they conquered and yes they did contribute a lot but they did too much wrong to forget the fact that they are ruthless killers. Many of the Mongols laws also showed evidence that they were strict, ruthless, and unreasonable people.Like on their laws about adultery it says that whoever commits the crime of adultery they shall be executed. But it also says that if you are a non-believer and you want to get with the married woman then you have to kill her husband first. Another outrageous fact about their law that I found out about is that the man could have as many wives as he can keep. It was a general custom for them to marry any of their relationships except with their moth er, daughter, or sister but they could still marry their step sister and his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s wives but only after the father has passed.To the Mongols, drunkenness is considered an honor among their fellow people. (Doc 10) This whole article clearly proves that the Mongols were very weird, disgusting, and uncivilized barbarians. Even though the Mongols conquest did benefit the conquered lands by giving religious tolerance, outlawing theft and adultery and a little bit more but it still doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t wipe away the fact that they were cruel with the way they treated survivors and the number of deaths that were caused by them. Also it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t change the fact that they have took away so many home and live from the people of the lands that they have conquered. Las
Saturday, September 28, 2019
There is an increase in tourism in Castleton, because of this many conflicts take place between the tourist and locals. To over overcome these conflicts the council have had to add facilities for tourists. The table attached with this shows some of the facilities added to try and solve some of the conflicts that take place. I have also explained below about each conflict and how the council have tried to solve the conflict. Litter: One of the first conflicts that occur in Castleton is that many of the tourists drop litter. When tourists drop litter this obviously make the locals furious because is ruining the environment. The council have tried to overcome this problem by putting bins around the village; there are also notices of fines for dropping litter around the village to make an attempt to stop tourists dropping litter. Toilets: Another conflict that occurs in Castleton is that the tourists annoy the locals to let them use their toilets. For example some tourist only go into a shop/public house to use the toilet. The council have tried to overcome this problem by putting public toilets in some places in Castleton. Directions: Another conflict that occurs that annoys some of the locals a lot is that tourists are regularly asking the locals for directions. The council have put up signs and information boards around the village. There is also and tourist information centre in Castleton, were the tourist could ask questions (directions) instead of asking the locals and they could also pick up leaflets and maps. Traffic: Another major conflict between the tourist and locals because of the traffic. There are two parts to the traffic conflict. The first part is the parking. There weren't enough parking spaces along the roads for the tourist. This caused a major problem parking problems because tourist parked their vehicle wherever they could. This caused problems and conflicts with locals because locals needed places to park their vehicles too. To solve this problem the council built a big car park for tourist vehicles (cars, coaches etc). The council have also put parking restrictions such as double yellow lines. The second part to the traffic conflict is the congestion. There is a lot tourist traffic, which causes congestion, which again annoys the locals. To solve this problem the council built a roundabout at the entrance of the car park. They have also made some roads a one-way system. The council have also introduced a system know as winnaits pass which means only car's with the pass are allowed in the area. Seating: Another conflict that has caused conflicts between the locals and tourist is that the tourists sit on walls, which eventually weaken and could make them crumble overtime (stones in a stone wall would loosen up and weaken and would crumble). To solve this problem the council have built benches in many areas to prevent this from happening. School Groups: The final conflict that occurs in Castleton is between tourist (mainly school groups) and locals. The school groups come to Castleton and make a lot of noise, which annoys the locals because they local residents want to enjoy the quiet environment. To solve this problem the council send the teachers to the information centre, which prevents too many school groups coming on the same day and also warns them about the residential areas. The council have also put up signs warning tourists about residential areas and tells the tourist to keep the noise level low
Friday, September 27, 2019
Relationship between two currenies - Essay Example A country can determine the price of a currency against another currency in two ways, which include fixed and floating exchange rate. Fixed or pegged exchange rate is rate of currency determined and maintained by Central Bank. Ã¢â¬Å"In order to maintain local exchange rate, the central bank buys and sells it own currency in the foreign exchange market in return for the currency against which it is peggedÃ¢â¬ (Mano, 2010). On the other hand, floating exchange rate is determined by market a force, which means levels of supply and demand of the currency, decides at which price the currency will be sold in foreign exchange market. There are multifarious factors, which determine the exchange rate. This includes higher interest rate that would attract the foreign financial capital inflow in the local country and foreigners demand for local currency escalates resulting in appreciating exchange rate. Another factor is economic health, which means foreign investors are likely to invest in countries with high positive indicators like inflation growth and debt burden rather than in economies, which are weak. Exchange rate is also quite susceptible to shocks and speculation. In addition, money markets are liquid so exchange rates are responsive to sudden shocks (Madura, 2008). Currency rates even move because of speculative investments or if brokers trade them as per their expectations of exchange rate. One other important factor is government or central bank intervention, which we already discussed under fixed exchange rate. The two major strong currencies of the world are dollar and Euros. It is not possible to conclude the exchange rate discussion without mentioning about them (Madura, 2008). There are different theories by which economists explain the general movements in exchange rate. However, none of them is strong enough to describe the exact movements so for; therefore, they explain these movements with the term Ã¢â¬Å"random walk patternÃ¢â¬ . It is impossi ble to overlook the exchange rate between dollar and yen when discussing reasons behind the general movements in exchange rates. This is because of the appreciating yen against dollar that has been under maintenance since last 15 years, thus, it is important to explore the root causes behind this appreciation (Madura, 2008). Observing the exchange rate for last seven months of yen against one dollar was 85, 84, 81,82,83,82, and 83 in August to February period. Hence, on average, yen has appreciated from August 2010 to January 2011 but it bounced back against dollar on February 15, 2011 at rate of 83.7972. The foremost thing to consider when deciding on the reasons of general movements in exchange rate is that exchange rate is just the price of one currency in terms of another. If yen is strong against dollar it means it is stronger relative to dollar that is dollar is weak and yen is not strong in itself (Madura, 2008). The major reason for weak dollar is due to its global financial crisis and most probably risk of Ã¢â¬Å"second dipÃ¢â¬â¢ which means second recession. Apart from these crises, President Obama is in a flabby situation because his mid- term congress elections are round the corner. Hence, these shaky situations are resulting in a search for Ã¢â¬Å"safe havenÃ¢â¬ as investors are finding yen as a stable currency as compared to dollar or euro. This results in yen appreciation (Madura, 2008). There are not only direct reasons, which result in appreciation of yen
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Debate between "bar code labeling" and " radio frequency identification " - Assignment Example However, with the sole intension of enhancing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain even more, I want to present an in-depth comparison between the bar code labeling and the RFID to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each. It is my hope that this comparison will led to an informed recommendation regarding which among the two technologies the company should adopt. Before going into the advantages and disadvantages of each of the two technologies, it is important to have some background information about them. Both the barcode and RFID are technologies used for data collection. Therefore, they perform primarily the same functions. Additionally, the barcode technology came before the RFID. With this in mind, let me now focus on their advantages and disadvantages based on various aspects. 1. Read Rate Ã¢â¬â with regard to the reading rate, the barcode reader is slower than the RFID (Campbell Para7). The barcode technology depends on manual reading, which implies that it the reader can only scan one tag at time. However, the RFID can scan over 100 tags simultaneously. In this regard, the RFID technology is better than the barcode labeling. 2. Human Involvement Ã¢â¬â with the barcode technology, human intervention is required because the scanner has to be manually directed towards the tags (Campbell Para 7). However, with RFID, human intervention is not required because the technology is completely automated (Adaptalift Hyster n.p.). Therefore, the RFID technology will reduce the amount of labor required by the company. 3. Line of Sight Ã¢â¬â this is the main difference between the two technologies. With the barcode reader, the scanner has to face the barcode directly to read it. However, the RFID technology does not have to face the tag directly but can read within a broad range (Campbell Para 7). 4. Functionality Ã¢â¬â
Information Studies Exams - Essay Example The propensity for documents to be written and commented upon, another aspect that Brown discusses, has been greatly facilitated by the new generation of electronic documents. An electronic document is amenable to being processed and transmitted by electronic means. One of the major difficulties in moving away from physical to electronic documents stems from security concerns. In the case of physical documents, there is usually only one copy of sensitive information. This copy can be physically protected. In the case of electronic documents, theft of sensitive information is on the rise due to many reasons. The security of the documents and information are challenged by the proliferation of hackers and other forms of attack. Moreover, even where tight security measures are applied, these are, in many cases, restricted to storage and transmission of the documents only. Recipients of the information may unwittingly form breaches in the security system. At the same time, legislation such as the HIPAA makes it mandatory for organizations to take effective measures to protect the privacy of those dealing with them. Easy availability of information has also raised questions about governmental accountability against privacy of individuals. Government can access information about individuals more easily in the electronic age, and under certain circumstances officials of the government are authorized to do so. This creates a dilemma because it is very difficult to judge what constitutes essential intrusions into privacy. There are several social and ethical issues that arise as a result of increasing use of Information systems. The ethical issues broadly cover areas such as Information rights and obligations, property rights and obligations, and accountability. Cultural issues such as assimilation of technologies and development of trust, security issues that concern misuse or theft of information, and fraud, are some of the other
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Controversial topic - Essay Example Several possible negative effects have been listed that risks the environment, human health and socio-economic concerns. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations discussed the possibility of genes introduced in GMOs escaping or transferring to other members of the same species and perhaps other species that are the non-target. These transgenes or foreign DNA sequence interaction in the cell, plant or ecosystem level, once released will be impossible to recall. Furthermore, there are no conclusive tests to affirm that artificial insertion of genes will not destabilize an organism, encourage mutations or whether the inserted gene itself will be stable in the organism over generations (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). There is also a well-placed concern on the possibility of introducing foreign genes would negatively impact the health of humans. Author Doris Lin cited studies conducted on rats on a GMO diet that showed problems in their liver and kidneys (Lin). A point to also consider with GMOs is it might result to the birth of a different allergen that can develop life-threatening allergies in people. Socio-economically, the biotechnology research which is the precursor of GMOs is actually lengthy and costly process spearheaded by the private sector. It is big business, with the wish to ensure the return of investment. Advocates have raised their concerns that the market dominance in the agricultural sector would cause the famersÃ¢â¬â¢ loss of access to plant material. These would deeply impact small-scale farmers by making them pay for crop varieties bred from genetic material that originally came from their own fields but whose specific genetic modification strains have been patented by big agro-biotech companies (Whitman). If these companies would raise the price of the seeds for their own profit and advancement, small
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Canadian Politics. Topic below - Essay Example Of course, with the introduction of the Canada Act and the accompanying Charter, much of the constitutional law in Canada has changed, as the Charter has shifted the focus of the Constitution to individual and collective rights of the inhabitants of Canada. There are many issues within and in relation to this system which are of great importance and significance. The principle of parliamentary supremacy within the Canadian constitutional system, for instance, is one of these matters, and is in fact considered as being one of the most major and relevant of all. The aim of this paper is to discuss the actual principle of parliamentary supremacy within the Canadian constitutional system, the basic history of the constitutional system itself, as well as any and all other key and related issues. By doing this, we will be able to gain a much more informed and knowledgeable understanding in regards to this subject matter overall. This is what will be dissertated in the following. A countryÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution is what defines the powers and the limits of powers that can be exercised by the different levels and branches of government, and although there is actually no single constitution in Canadian law, the Constitution Act Ã¢â¬â a part of the Canada Act of 1982 Ã¢â¬â finally Ã¢â¬ËpatriatedÃ¢â¬â¢ or brought home from Great Britain that of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution as created by the BNA Act. Ã¢â¬Å"The Constitution Act declares the Constitution of Canada to be the supreme law of Canada and includes some 30 acts and orders that are part of it. It reaffirms CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s dual legal system by stating provinces have exclusive jurisdiction over property and civil rights. It also includes Aboriginal rights, those related to the historical occupancy and use of the land by Aboriginal peoples, treaty rights, agreements between the Crown and particular groups of Aboriginal peopleÃ¢â¬ (Department of Justice Canada, 2007). The Canadian Constitution set s out the basic and most definable principles of
Monday, September 23, 2019
Analyzing the Gender Roles Presented in TV Serials - Essay Example This paper will juxtapose three very popular TV analyzing the gender roles presented in them. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody love Raymond is another very popular TV show which has been very well liked and followed.Ã¢â¬ (Everybody loves lazy stereotyping of male roles)The concept of Gender roles must be noticed in this serial, Debra the wife of Raymond is always in the kitchen making food either for her husband or for her family, this goes to show that women are always in the kitchen spending their time cooking for their families. Marxist feminism also comes into play here, Karl Marx argues that women must be paid for domestic labor, this is what Marxist feminism is all about. Another very important thing which must be noticed in this show is that Debra is the one who always packs the lunch of her children; Raymond never bothers to do this. It goes to show how irresponsible at times men are towards their families. Ã¢â¬Å"The gender roles presented in these serials are presented very rightly afte r doing comprehensive research.Ã¢â¬ (Gender and Media Representation) Gilman called herself a humanist, she was deadly against exploitation of women, our society is still following the patriarchal ways and exploiting the women. She was not very comfortable accepting the theory of evolution laid down by Charles Darwin, the theory of evolution portrays man in the driving seat and gives less importance to women. Both the sexes are equally important and no favoritism of any sort can be done. She argued that women had to rely excessively on their sexual assets, they had to please their husband to ensure their survival, this is very true and beyond the pale. Grounded for life is another very popular TV show which is well liked by the audience. In one episode the husband decides to buy a car without even bothering to ask his wife, marriage is an institution and it is the right of the wife to be well informed about all the decisions made by her husband. This again reflects the reality; t here are countless husbands who do not bother asking their better halves before making an important decision. Dad goes to work and Mom takes care of the household chores, it is unacceptable if a man packs lunch for his children, it is unacceptable if a man does the dishes. It is incorrect if a man asks his wife before making a big decision, buying a car is quite a big decision and a wife must know of this big decision before hand. Perkins Gilman was a very famous American sociologist who wanted to bring about change in the society, it is our duty to share the workload with women, and it is not a manÃ¢â¬â¢s world anymore. Women must be given respect and their workload must be shared. It is very important to understand the responsibilities of living in a family, gender stenotypes must be abolished and we must awake to a new and a better world. Conclusion To conclude it is very fair to say that women must be respected and we must shed our stereotypical thinking for the best. This is the need of the hour and we must put an end to this forever. Once this ends we would stop seeing stereotypes in TV shows and even the TV shows would become much better than ever, it will benefit each and every one of us. The three shows that
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Applying Ethical Practice Essay Ethical Implications The ethical principles involved in the article reviewed are beneficence (bring about positive good) fidelity (trustworthy), and veracity (honesty) The nurse involved is caught between the core principles of nursing, by following the patients wish of not informing her parents by the diagnoses of a sexually transmitted disease. The implications of betraying the core principles of nursing could cause internal conflict with her value principles, and not to mention the trust of the patient. Other implications could be how the parents view the patient. Strict religious convictions of the parents could cause more harm to the young teen by shunning the child, and not letting the child return home would keep the child from receiving the treatment needed, and possibly create a homeless situation for the teen. Making the school aware of the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ situation would also be breach of confidentially, and may even cause legal complications for the health care facility. The situation with the sex parties is not related to school activities, unless sex parties were occurring on campus. Due to the fact that the nurse informed the school the young teen attempts suicide, and again may have legal complications for the nurse and the health care facility. All of these implications can be seen in the article reviewed. Ethical Theories and Ethical Principals When it comes to veracity and fidelity the profession of nursing is considered to be at the top of the list. (Honesty/Ethics in Professions, 2013) The Nightingale Pledge calls nurses to have and use these value principles on a daily basis in nursing and also in every day life. According to the Code of Ethics for Nurses provision 3 3.2Ã¢â¬ ¦ the nurse has the duty to maintain confidentiality of all information. Maintaining these principles also promotes Nonmaleficence (do no harm). According Jean WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s carative factors (Lachman, 2012) Ã¢â¬Å"developing and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationshipÃ¢â¬ is at the very core of nursing. Building this relationship with the patient the nurse must be self aware of anyÃ judgmental feelings he/she may have regarding the patient situation.(Lachman, 2012) The nurse needs to decide what is the best way to care for the young teen. If confidentially is broken further treatment by the patient may not be sought afte r. Respecting the patient also means respecting confidentially. We must gain the patients fidelity and maintain the trust for continuing communication to occur. However in the article reviewed after the nurse discovers the young teens diagnoses she is torn between the trusting relationship she has been developing and the principle of beneficence by informing her parents of the diagnoses of cervical cancer. She also has the information regarding her sexual activates. Again this violates the confidentially needed to maintain the trusting relationship or beneficence. If the trust is not broken the young teen will not seek treatment and further harm will be done. Alternatives Alternatives to this situation would lead to probable breach of several core nursing values, fidelity and veracity. It would also breach Nonmaleficence. However the young teen is a minor and the diagnoses of cervical cancer is a diagnosis that needs treatment requiring parentÃ¢â¬â¢s consent. The alternative of keeping the young teens confidence, would result in the patient not receiving the care she needs. Which would be a breach of Nonmaleficence. It would also be a breach fidelity and veracity between the physician and the nurse. The alternative to not informing the school of the sex parties would have a much better outcome, the suicide attempt most likely would not have occurred, and the health care facility would not be looking at probable legal proceedings. Maybe changing the language and leaving out the young teens name would have been a much better alternative. Ethics Committee Approaches A breach of confidentially should never be taken lightly. The disclosure of he information to the school and the resulting attempted suicide may be of bigger concern to the health care facility, rather than the breach of confidentially between the nurse and the young teen since she is a minor, and the breach of confidentially will bring about the care the young teen needs. The committee could raise the question about the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ judgmentÃ and his decision to notify the school. References Honesty/Ethics in Professions. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/1654/honesty-ethics-professions.aspx Lachman, V. D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Nursing to Your Nursing Practice. MEDSURG NURSING, 21(2), 112-117. Retrieved from www.ana.org Nathanson, P. G. (2011, July, 6). Betraying Trust or Providing Good Care? When is it okay to break confidentially? American Journal of Bioethics. Purtilo, R. B., Doherty, R. F. (2011). Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders. American Nurses Association (ANA). (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Silver Spring, MD: Author.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Implementation of a Risk Communication Plan Following the reported deaths of hundreds of birds in Esperance in Western Australian between December 2006 and March 2007, it was discovered that lead being transported through the towns port were responsible for their deaths. However, much of the community was unaware of this until it became public as part of the investigation into bird deaths in the local environment. Esperance saw itself as an idyllic rural community, with a sound economic basis, but removed from the problems associated with cities, such as pollution. Once the lead problem was identified, residents became very concerned about their childrens health and demanded immediate action. In order to address the concerns of the affected parties, a risk communication plan is essential so as the risk assessment team is able to improve risk understanding among target groups, disclose information about hazards to people whom might be exposed, legitimise risk-related decisions in favor of acceptance or rejection of specific risk sources. It also has the role to breakdown the risk management process to the target audience so that assessors can build up trust in the risk fairness of the management process while at the same ensuring that there is enough individual risk reduction information to improve public protection. Finally the risk communication plan promotes support towards the communicating agency as it provides guidelines for emergency situations and educates decision-makers about public concerns and perceptions. (Sue Lang, Lorna Fewtrell and Jamie Bartram, 2001, p.320) There are multiple stakeholders involved in this crisis, starting with the residents of the community, governmental departments such as the department of water, environment and planning, local businesses, the companies exporting the metals, the port authorities and media. A risk communication (RC) needs assessment was run prior in order to identify the major stakeholders involved in the in this crisis and to identify the issues of concerns of for each group, the goals from the interaction with each group and be able to choose and adequate technique of approach to each type of stakeholder. The RC needs assessment had led to understand that various stakeholders had different issues of interests and concerns and that whether their concerns were, the techniques of approach to them may overlap. The key stakeholders were identified to be the residents of Esperence, health department, water department, port authorities, tourism operators, business owners, the media, local authorities and department of environment, local government and department of planning. The key issues noted during the assessment were the risk to the health of the residents, risks to local businesses such as tourism, relocation of locals, and panic within the community due to health hazards. The table below identifies the issues that meant to be addressed in a risk communication plan and how they are link to the plans goal together with the activities needed to be carried out so as to reach the goals. It should also be noted that descending order of the issues representative of the priority given to each individual issue. (R Brian Pickard, Risk Communication Plan Guidance,Ã 2013 p.24) ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED PLANS GOALS ACTIVITIES Local residents concerns regarding the hazards Provide the residents necessaryÃ and adequate information to address their concerns Provide information to the residents by activities such as distributing information on physical or electrical mediums. Develop and maintain relationships and supports two-way communication with public community groups, and the news media. Concerns of the health department regarding crisis Provide them with the outreach of the crisis; how many people are affected and to which extent. Maintain direct communication for health persons via phone, email or in person. So that they received necessary data as they require it. Level of information between assessors and Department of water Share findings obtain through research to concerned department so it knows where they stand and how they can mitigate the situation Ensure that they receiveÃ tangible information in terms of documents and findings which they can consult and base action plan upon Concerns about treat to local businesses. Assess impact of contamination on local businesses. Hold meeting with the concerned stakeholders and discuss ways by which they are being affected and try find solutions. Department of planning Provide the department expected outcomes in case of an imminent crisis Ensure that they receiveÃ tangible information in terms of documents and findings which they can consult and base action plan upon Nature and types of information being released by the media Audit the quality of information being released to the press. Monitoring of information released through various media outlets; websites, newspapers, television and radio by appointing media trackers Threat to port activities and jobs at stake Assess situation and find possible links between issues and port. Minimize potential risk of activities shutdown. Meet with responsible of activities and discuss Communication at all stages of the program is important. People need to be informed about key developments so they will be able to make the most of the program. Information should be disclosed to community members throughout the program, especially before starting key activities, before making changes to the program and upon encountering delays. The order/timing in which information is disclosed to the various stakeholders depends upon who they represent in the community and the value of their feedback so that when a wider public is informed, the risk assessment plan has already been revised to that it understood by the majority of the stakeholders. The resources to be deployed for the risk communication plan relies greatly on the budget allocated to the assessment. While a great part of the resources remain man power which favors easier communication, builds up trust among the community, provides for skills for data collection and analysis depending upon the budget communication methods such as mass media and dedicated can employed, else inexpensive methods inexpensive, such as sharing information at community meetings, working with community and committees creating simple posters can be used., There are various challenges that might hinder the implementation of this; unwillingness for stakeholders to cooperate, coordinate risk communication messages among multiple communicators who are communicating about the same issue or time constraints. (Cabinet Implementation Unit Toolkit, 2013, p.3). The roles and responsibilities in order to implement the risk communication plan correctly are as listed below. ROLE RESPONSIBILITIES Public Information Officer Implement risk communication plan and directs information disclosure Provide information to stakeholder through various mediums Create and uphold two conversation between all stakeholders .Maintains current information summaries and/or displays on the incident. Responsible to communicate information toÃ pertinent staff Develop presentations for utility executives Prepare responses to constituent inquiries. Content and Message Coordinator Develops pathways to receive information rapidly from various institutes regarding public health emergencies and works with available subject matter experts to create situation-specific fact sheets and updates. Media Coordinator . Assesses media needs (e.g., briefings, statements) and bridges the gap between the public and sources Direct Public Outreach Coordinator Responsible for public service announcement and initiates telephone information line Partner/Stakeholder Coordinator Sets up communication protocols based on agreements with identified partners and stakeholders. Media Tracker Monitors available internally and externally identifies misinformation, provides, assess the quality of communication, takes action to amend wrong information, tracks press releases, monitors news outlets and web sites, and drives away (stories that may or may not be true)
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Things They Carried and HerbertÃ¢â¬â¢s Article War is Personal Bob Herbert's article, "War is Personal," has many parallels to Tim O'Brien's novel The Things They Carried. Although O'Brien's novel deals with the Vietnam War and Herbert's article deals with the current war with Iraq, both describe the position of American soldiers and their struggle with living in war. O'Brien's novel is more personal than Herbert's objective article but both show the importance of trust, significance of pain, and the terror of young soldiers face. In war it is important to be able to trust your fellow soldiers and allies because the conditions of war already has soldiers "a bit jumpy, [and] edgy," according to Captain James McGahey in Herbert's article. In O'Brien's novel Lee Strunk and Dave Jensen get into a fight over a stolen jackknife. Jenson injured Strunk and then broke his own nose because he was afraid of Strunk retaliating. Jensen was not able to trust Strunk to remain non-violent, which is important because, "you never want to have to think whether you can trust the guy to your left or right," according to Captain James McGahey in Herbert's article. Strunk and Jensen were able to trust each other again, making the war a little easier to handle. Although the article and novel were about two different wars, the two still serve as complements to each other. Another key event in war is the pain soldiers go through. O'Brien describes the pain of many injuries he and his platoon mates have gone through. When O'Brien got shot the second time, the medic, Jorgenson, was incompetent and didn't respond immediately. As O'Brien explains, by the time Jorgenson got to him, "I was gone with pain."(198) The same pain O'Brien experienced was explained by a soldier in Herbert's article who stated, "There was nothing in the whole world except me and that pain." War's excruciating pain is unavoidable for the young soldiers that have to experience it. The soldiers are also a parallel in the two wars. Soldiers are young and not always in war for the right reasons. As Mrs. Paine says in Herbert's article, "They're just children, really.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Who am I? Such a simple question: such a profoundly difficult one to answer. I could tell you that my name is Rob Jones, but that would only be my name. I could tell you that I would like to become a professional author and that I have strong linguistic skills and an artistic flair. But these are merely reflections of who I am: gifts I possess and talents I have perfected. I suppose I must start by telling you what I am. I am a human being. As such, I have several distinctive and inseparable parts. There is my physical side: namely my body with all its many tangible parts. This is not really me, though on this side of the great veil I couldn't survive without it. You may as well say that this body is merely a suit that houses the real me. But who is the real me? I have a second side to my being, a mental side that consists of intangible things such as my thoughts, feelings, emotions, knowledge, and wisdom-in short all the things that I have ever thought, experienced, known, or felt. Yes, this side relies on my physical side, my outer shell, to interface with the outer world. ...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Relatable Stranger: How and Why We Are Meursault Using his existentialist text The Stranger as a vessel for his own philosophical ideals, absurdist Albert Camus poses a question most essential to human existence: when released from the shackles of tediously perpetuated societal routine, how does a man function? Embodying the answer to this question is Monsieur Meursault, whose once rational speech and logical action unravel in the heat of circumstance to illustrate what Camus deems Ã¢â¬Å"the nakedness of man faced with the absurd.Ã¢â¬ Possessing the characteristics of any respectable gentleman, Meursault is honest, sensible, and extremely adaptable to the universe in motion around him, substituting mindless rhetoric and the excuse of emotional abundance with an acuity of thought and proclivity to raw sensation. By structuring his philosophy around a man with such a nonspecific and thus relatable identity, Camus evokes sympathy by touching at the bestial necessity of freedom for the individual, mocked by a society interested on ly in docile collectivity. Taking little stock in the unspoken and assumed truths of the culture in which he exists, Meursault follows a more natural and almost physiological rhythm of emotion and sensuality. After learning of the death of his mother, he must travel Ã¢â¬Å"about eighty kilometers from AlgiersÃ¢â¬ for the funeral (Camus 3). Rather than emphasize the exhaustive capability of trauma, Meursault elicits reason, explaining that Ã¢â¬Å"it was probably because of all the rushing around, and on top of that the bumpy ride, the smell of gasoline, and the glare of the sky and the road, that [he] dozed offÃ¢â¬ (Camus 4). After returning home from the funeral, he awakens the next morning and decides to take a swim in the pu... ... indifference of the worldÃ¢â¬ (Camus 122). With sympathy toward Meursault secured, a natural disapproval of the society who condemns him is to be formed. By placing a mirror before the very society which this text intends to describe, the novel forces those who read it to reevaluate their seemingly natural assumptions concerning the Ã¢â¬Å"frivolous indulgenceÃ¢â¬ of emotion, the stone cold immovability of morality, and most of all the purpose of judgment (Camus 40). In his essay on the guillotine, Camus defines compassion as that which Ã¢â¬Å"does not exclude punishment, but [which] withholds an ultimate condemnationÃ¢â¬ (Camus 40). With the creation of such a relatable character as Meursault, Albert Camus attempts to breathe compassion into an otherwise indifferent society, acting as the catalyst for a reaction which both sympathizes and reconsiders what essentially makes us human.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Heavy rains continued to lash Mumbai and coastal Maharashtra for the second consecutive day Monday, disrupting normal life in the region, officials said. Many parts of the city and suburbs have been waterlogged and some areas were flooded Monday morning, hampering smooth movement of people and vehicles, said officials at the Municipal Corporation of Greater MumbaiÃ¢â¬â¢s Disaster Control Cell. Flooding was reported from Malad, Andheri, Versova, Dadar, Parel, Chembur, many parts of the key LBS Marg in the eastern suburbs, and Marol-Saki Naka belt. Two important subways at Malad and Andheri were flooded, with about three feet of water, rendering them inoperational for the east-west traffic movement. Local trains were delayed. Central Railway trains ran late by 20 minutes, Western Railway ones by 15 minutes and trains on the Harbour Line by 30 minutes. Peak morning hour commuters and businessmen were left inconvenienced. In the 24 hours preceding 5.30 a.m. Monday, South Mumbai recorded 9.04 cm rain, while the suburbs notched a staggering 18.01 cm rain, a weather bureau official said. The forecast for Monday and Tuesday is Ã¢â¬Å"heavy to very heavy rainsÃ¢â¬ in many parts of the coastal areas including Mumbai, with accompanying strong winds and advice to fishermen not to venture into the Arabian Sea. The torrential, virtually incessant, rain since Saturday night has resulted in traffic moving at a snailÃ¢â¬â¢s pace on the Eastern Express Highway, Western Express Highway, the Jogeshwari-Vikhroli Link Road and other important roads and junctions. Though Mumbaikars enjoyed the monsoon with parties and picnics during the weekend, the grim reality dawned Monday, as schools reopened after the summer break and many office-goers returned to work. The monsoon also set in over other parts of the state, offering welcome respite from water scarcity and intense heat wave conditions. Till date, there have been 11 monsoon-related deaths in different incidents across the state.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The formation of the United Nations (1945) Kegley (2007) mentions that the failure of the League of Nations, brought about the creation of the United Nations in 1945. Following the planning of the American, British and Soviet allies for a new international organization to maintain peace and security, the United Nations came into existence on 24 October 1945. Today, the United Nations has many departments that deal with vast global issues mainly humanitarian, economic and social. The creation of the United Nations has also brought the birth of other organizations such as the European Union in 1993 and the World Trade organization in 1995. Internationally, the living standards of many have positively changed since the founding of the United Nations The creation of the declaration of Human Rights (1948) According to Hass (2008), the second charter of the United Nations after peace promotions is human rights. ( Vandersluis and Yerous in Kegley 2007, p. 220) state that Ã¢â¬Å" the universalist claim, that all human beings have the same moral status; to accept universal human rights the moral demand to respect the life, integrity, well-being and flourishing of all human beingsÃ¢â¬ . This was the general idea when the declaration of human rights was created. Violence, racial and gender discrimination, child abuse, religion and immigration laws are now governed by these laws. This has encouraged peace and development across the globe. The introduction of oral contraception (1958) Oral contraception is a means of preventing unwanted pregnancies through the ingesting of the pill. The pill was first introduced in the United States as an alternative to minimize infant mortality and enforce women rights with issues concerning child birth. Prior to the use of the oral pill, women used to go to extreme measure to exercise birth control. Women used to nurse their children for two to three years. This would suppress ovulation protecting them from pregnancy. Another natural method is coitus reservatus or withholding ejaculationÃ¢â¬ Elder (n. d). This development is a safer, efficient and reliable method for women today. Other methods of contraception where then introduced to suit different women across the world. The Entebbe Raid (1976) This eve nt occurred when Air France departed from Paris to Athens bound to Israel was hijacked by seven Palestinians and diverted to Entebbe airport in Uganda. Haas (2008) reports that there were Jewish and Israeli passengers on board. The battle on the airfield was a result of the fear of a massacre portrayed by the hijackers. Ugandan soldiers and a small number of hostages were killed. This event marked the beginning of air flight hijackings. In 2001, the Americans were attacked by the Taliban in a similar manner and many perished. Due to such an event, strict rules and regulations for passengers have been enforced globally to ensure the safety of the innocent. The Bhopal industrial accident (1984) The Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India experienced the worst industrial accident in history. A leakage of forty tons of chemicals resulted in the death of over seven thousand and two hundred thousand injuries according to Haas (2008). This was a wakeup call for many industrial plants to exercise extreme caution. Codes of conduct in the workplace are of major importance today. Companies are now required to ensure that health and safety procedures are implemented. Environmental awareness is also a major topic of discussion as this accident had an impact on the environment.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Sensitivity analysis helps to test the sensitivity of the optimum solution with respect to changes of the coefficients in the objective function, coefficients in the constraints inequalities, or the constant terms in the constraints. For Example in the case study discussed: The actual selling prices (or market values) of the two products may vary from time to time. Over what ranges can these prices change without affecting the optimality of the present solution? Will the present solution remain the optimum solution if the amount of raw materials, production time, or storage space is suddenly changed because of shortages, machine failures, or other events? The amount of each type of resources needed to produce one unit of each type of product can be either increased or decreased slightly. Will such changes affect the optimal solution ? The Input or Arrival Process Ã¢â¬ ¢The input process is usually called the arrival process. Ã¢â¬ ¢Arrivals are called customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢We assume that no more than one arrival can occur at a given instant. Ã¢â¬ ¢If more than one arrival can occur at a given instant, we say that bulk arrivals are allowed. Ã¢â¬ ¢Models in which arrivals are drawn from a small population are called finite source models. Ã¢â¬ ¢If a customer arrives but fails to enter the system, we say that the customer has balked The Output or Service Process Ã¢â¬ ¢To describe the output process of a queuing system, we usually specify a probability distribution Ã¢â¬â the service time distribution Ã¢â¬â which governs a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s service time. Ã¢â¬ ¢We study two arrangements of servers: servers in parallel and servers in series. Ã¢â¬ ¢Servers are in parallel if all servers provide the same type of service and a customer needs only pass through one server to complete service. Ã¢â¬ ¢Servers are in series if a customer must pass through several servers before completing service. Queue Discipline Ã¢â¬ ¢The queue discipline describes the method used to determine the order inÃ which customers are served. Ã¢â¬ ¢The most common queue discipline is the FCFS discipline (first come, first served), in which customers are served in the order of their arrival. Ã¢â¬ ¢Under the LCFS discipline (last come, first served), the most recent arrivals are the first to enter service. Ã¢â¬ ¢If the next customer to enter service is randomly chosen from those customers waiting for service it is referred to as the SIRO discipline (service in random order). Ã¢â¬ ¢Finally we consider priority queuing disciplines. Ã¢â¬ ¢A priority discipline classifies each arrival into one of several categories. Ã¢â¬ ¢Each category is then given a priority level, and within each priority level, customers enter service on a FCFS basis.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
DECLARATION This Internship report is submitted as a partial fulfilment of the requirement of Bachelor of Business Administration . I am Md. Saiful Islam hereby declares that the work presented in this report titled Ã¢â¬Å"Commercial Basic Credit Management EXIM Bank Experience. Ã¢â¬ has been carried out by me and has not been previously submitted to any other University, College or Organization for any academic qualification, certificate, diploma or degree. The work I have presented does not breach any existing copyright.I further undertake to indemnify the university the against any loss or damage arising from breach of the foregoing obligations. Md. Saiful Islam ID NO. 0101092908 Department of Business Administration IBAIS University ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first, I foremost like to express my heartiest thankfulness to Almighty Allah to reach me at the end of the BBA Internship. I would like to take the opportunity to express my heartiest gratitude to my honourable supervisor Mahabb at Hosen, Department of Business Administration, IBAIS University for his continuous guidance and support to complete this report.My special thanks to the respondent and my friends specially, Sumon and Monirul Islam former students of IBAIS University for their kind help and co-operation during the course of this Internship. My sincere apologies to the readers for my conceptual and printing mistakes (if any). Md. Saiful Islam ID NO. 0101092908 Department of Business Administration IBAIS University Certificate of the supervisor This is to certify that the thesis on Ã¢â¬ËAccounting Performance on Credit Management and Legal Settlement EXIM Bank Ltd. An overviewÃ¢â¬â¢ as a partial fulfilment of requirement of Ã¢â¬ËBachelor of Business AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢ degree from Ã¢â¬ËIBAIS UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢.The thesis has been carried out under my guidance and is a record of the bona fide work carried out successfully. Signature: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. SupervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s Full Name: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Date: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Faculty: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Letter of TransmittalDate: March 16, 2013 Mahabbat Hosan Lecture of IBAIS University Dept. of Business Administration Subject: Submission of Inter nship Report Dear Sir, It is my great pleasure to submit the internship report on Ã¢â¬Å"Accounting Performance on Credit Management and legal Settlement at EXIM Bank overview. Ã¢â¬ Which is the partial fulfilment of Bachelor of Business Administration of IBAIS University. I made sincere efforts to study related materials and documents, observe operations performed in EXIM Bank Experience and examine relevant records for preparation of the report.Within the time limit, I have to make this report as comprehensive as possible. But there may be some mistakes due to various limitations. For this reason beg your kind consideration in this regard. Sincerely yours. Md. Saiful Islam ID NO. 0101092908 Department of Business Administration IBAIS University Table of contents Part A Organization ChapterTopicsPage No. 1About The Report 1. 1Origin of the Report 1. 2Background of the Report 1. 3Objects of the study 1. 4Methodology of the study 1. 4. 1Primary Source of Data 1. 4. 2Secondary Sour ces of Date 1. 5Data Processing & Analysis Banking in Bangladesh 2. 1 Introduction 2. 2 Evolution of the word Ã¢â¬Å"BankÃ¢â¬ 2. 3 Emergence of Modern Banking 2. 4Bank Development in Bangladesh 2. 5Concluding Note 3EXIM Bank At a Glance 3. 1Historical Background of EXIM Bank Ltd 3. 2Profile of EXIM Bank 3. 3Credit Rating 3. 4Vision and Mission 3. 5Functions of the EXIM Bank Ltd. 3. 6Corporate Culture 3. 7Human Resource Management of EXIM Bank 3. 8Organizational Structure 3. 9Management of Rajuk avenue Branch organ gram 3. 10Management of EXIM Bank Ltd 3. 11Social Commitments 3. 11. 1EXIM Bank Foundation and CSR Activities 3. 11. . 1Healthcare service 3. 11. 1. 2Scholarship program for brilliant poor student 3. 11. 1. 3Helping people affected by natural calamities 3. 11. 1. 4Education Promotion Scheme (Interest free loan) 3. 11. 1. 5Helping people in slum areas 3. 11. 1. 6Donation to educational institutions to setup computer lab 3. 11. 1. 7 Beautification of Dhaka City 3. 12Achie vement 3. 12. 1First private sector bank to open exchange house in UK: 3. 12. 2Implementation of the world renowned Core Banking Software (TEMENOS T24) 3. 12. 3Conversion from Conventional Banking to Shariah Based Islamic Banking . 13Performance of EXIM Bank Ltd. 3. 14Shariah Board 3. 14. 1Shariah Auditing 3. 14. 2Banking with shariah principles 3. 15SWIFT Services 3. 15. 1SWIFT Network 3. 15. 2SWIFT is the logical choice for most international financial transactions 3. 15. 3SWIFT Messages 3. 16ATM Network 3. 17List of Branches 4Theoretical Aspect of Credit Management and Credit Policy 4. 1Credit Policy 4. 1. 1Definition of Credit Policy 4. 1. 2Purposes of Credit Policy 4. 1. 3Formulation of a Credit Policy 4. 1. 4Essential Components of a Sound Credit Policy 4. 1. 5Lending Guidelines 4. 1. Focus on Industry and Business Segment 4. 1. 7Types of Credit Facilities: Bank will go for 4. 2Credit Management 4. 2. 1 Process of Credit Management 4. 2. 2 Policy guidelines 4. 2. 3 Program gui delines 4. 2. 4Tools of Credit Management 4. 2. 5Definition of Credit Risk Grading(CRG) 4. 2. 6Use of Credit Risk Grading 4. 2. 7Number and short name of grades used in the CRG 4. 2. 8Financial Spread Sheet in Credit Management Part B Project Analysis 5Investment Case by EXIM Bank 5. 1Introduction 5. 2 Economic Sector Wise Distribution of Fund 5. 3 Nature Wise Distribution of Loans and Advances . 4 Maturity Grouping of Distribution of Loans and Advances 5. 5Securities in Credit Management 5. 6Practical Cases 6Recovery of Investment Fund 6. 1Loan Recovery Programs 6. 2Recovery Programs taken by EXIM Bank 6. 3 Recovery Patterns of loan and advance 6. 4 Problems in loan recovery 7Classified Loan & BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Performance 7. 1Introduction 7. 2Signs for Classification 7. 3Performance of EXIM Bank Limited 7. 4Evaluation of credit management of EXIM Bank from the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view 7. 5Concluding Remarks Findings & Recommendation Bibliography Chapter 01 About The Report 1. O rigin of the Report Present world is changing rapidly to face the challenge of competitive free market economy. To keep place with the trend every organization need executive with modern knowledge. To provide fresh graduate with modern theoretical and professional knowledge in banking and all other different institution management, IBAIS University has assigned the internship program for the students to help them out to have a practical knowledge to work in a real official environment. Under this course the students are sent to gather practical knowledge about working environment and activities.As a prerequisite for the Bachelor of Business Administration Degree I was required to complete this internship program in a suitable business organization. I had been selected to work as an Internee in Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited, Rajuk Avenue Branch for a period of 3 months from October 13, 2012 to January 12, 2012. Md. Moidul Islam, Senior Vice President, HR division, Export I mport Bank of Bangladesh Limited appointed me as an Internee. After discussion and getting consent, I started to work on the project titled Accounting Performance on Credit Management and legal Settlement at EXIM Bank Ltd an overviewÃ¢â¬ . . 2 Background of the Report For completion of the BBA degree all of the IBAIS University, students have to go through an internship program in an organization. For this reason BBA students require to undergraduate internship program where they match practical knowledge with that of theoretical knowledge which the acquired throughout the degree. The degree doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t complete unless a written report submitted to the faculty, basing on what have the students learned through the internship program. Being a student of BBA, I have the opportunity to work at EXIM BANK Ltd.Rajuk Avenue Branch. This report is prepared based on by observation during the tenor I was with them. 1. 3 Objects of the study The main objective of the study is the evaluatio n Ã¢â¬Å"Commercial Bank Credit Management EXIM Bank Ltd. Ã¢â¬ To achieve the main objectives, the study covers the following specific objectives. ?To understand the Commercial Bank Credit Management and its overview ? To know about the banking operation. ?To understand the different services provided by the bank ? To gather practical knowledge on Banking & to compare theory with ongoing practices. To present the suggestions to solve identified problems. 1. 4 Methodology of the study For the organization part, much information will be collected from different published articles, journals, brochures and web sites. All the information incorporated in this report will be collected both from the primary sources and as well as from the secondary sources. Here all the customers of EXIM Bank Ltd. who come to Rajuk Avenue Branch and related with the branch at least two years for doing various financial transaction constitute the total population of the study.The total samples are thirty clients who are related with the bank at least two years or more. I think they may represent the whole population. Each client who is conducting their business two years or more with Rajuk avenue Branch is a sample unit. 1. 4. 1Primary Source of Data Collecting data directly from the practical field is called primary source of data. The method that will be used to collect the primary data is as follows: Primary Sources are: Ã¢â¬ ¢Face to face conversation with the employees. Ã¢â¬ ¢Appointment with the top officials of the Bank. Ã¢â¬ ¢By interviewing customers of the Bank. 1. 4. Secondary Sources of Date The secondary data will be collected from the MIS of EXIM Bank. To clarify different conceptual matters, internet and different articles published in the journals & magazines will be used. Secondary Sources are: ?Annual Reports of EXIM Bank ?Other published documents of Bangladesh Bank. ?Office files and documents ?Study related books and journals ?Group Instruction Manual & Busin ess Instruction Manual ?Web sites 1. 5 Data Processing & Analysis Collected information have then processed & compiled with the aid of MS Word, Excel & other related computer software.Necessary tables have been prepared on the basis of collected data and various statistical techniques have been applied to analyses on the basis of classified information. 1. 6 Limitations of the study In spite of having the wholehearted effort, there were some limitations, which acted as a barrier to conduct the program and for doing an empirical research work. The limitations were: ?The study was limited only to the EXIM Bank Limited. ?Another Problem was time constraints. The duration of my internship Program was only three months. But this allocated time is not enough for a complete and fruitful study. The Bank was a busy one having heavy rush of people, whom officers need to deal with. So allocation of time for an internee is very much tough for the officers of the bank. ?Bank is a sophisticate bu siness sector. So bank do not interested to provide me confidential data. As a result in my report there is a confidential data limitation. ?Non availability of up to date data. ?EXIM Bank is an Islamic bank for that reason I face some problems to understand their products & facilities they provide. Because some of the rules of the Islamic banking are deferent from the general banking rules ?The department people always remain busy due to lack of supporting employees so they could not dedicate their full efforts. Chapter 02 Banking in Bangladesh 2. 1 Introduction Bank is an establishment which makes such advances of money to individual, as may be required with which individuals entrust money when not required by them for use. A bank is one, who in the ordinary course of his business receives money which he repays by honouring cheques of persons from whom or on whose account he receives it. Banks deal mainly with money and credit. They purchase and sell money and credit. . 2 Evolutio n of the word Ã¢â¬Å"BankÃ¢â¬ Etymology deals with the roots and origin of the word Ã¢â¬ËbankÃ¢â¬â¢. Regarding etymology or origin of the word bank there is no unanimous opinion among the writers of banking. According to some writers the word bank derived from the word BANCO, BANCUS, BANQUE, and BANC, all of which mean bench upon which the early bankers used to display their coins and transact business in the market place. According to the some other writers the word Ã¢â¬ËbankÃ¢â¬â¢ has been derived from the German word Ã¢â¬ËBANKEÃ¢â¬â¢ which means a joint stock fund.The 1st version is widely accepted because at one time the banking history, money changing was looked upon as the most widely accepted function of a banker. Banking in the ancient times was largely confined to money changing and money lending. 2. 3 Emergence of Modern Banking In middle Europe the bankers of Lombardy were very famous. To them belongs the credit of modern banking. In other words they plante d the seed of modern banking in England. They settled in London at a place known as Lombard Street. Florence was the capital of Lombardy. Lombardy was a province in North Italy.Most of the prominent bankers of their present were from Lombardy. Among those prominent bankers we can named one who were famous not only in banking but also in political history in Europe. These Lombardy people were very much disturbed in 13Ã¢â¬â¢s by internecine work which was followed by plunder by Kaiser Frederick two. Lombardy people in large number as a result started migrating to more settled countries such as England, French, and Belgium. In England these Lombardy people brought the idea of modern banking and thus England becomes the home of modern banking. . 4 Bank Development in Bangladesh Indigenous banking in Bangladesh is as old as banking in other parts of the world. Money used to be accepted as a deposit and advances used to be given. During Mughal period, indigenous banking flourished. The subarna banik the bullion trading community used to do banking in the then Bengal. Subsequently, larger banking in Bangladesh was gradually taken over by the upcountry bankers who were known as Seth, shah etc. but subarna baniks continued to operate in rural Bengal.With the British gradually coming over to Bengal and settling here, banking in the form of agency house, exchanging house started to flourish in kolkata. Entry of the Bengalese into banking started in the part of this century, especially in the wake of the swadeshi movement. In 1947 after the separation of India and Pakistan, bank business faced a severe disaster as non-Muslim bankers migrated to India. In order to rebuild the bank business State bank of Pakistan was established as a central bank of Pakistan in 1948. In 1971 Bangladesh became independent.After liberation Ã¢â¬Å"Bangladesh bank was automated with the asset and liabilities of former Ã¢â¬Å"State bank of PakistanÃ¢â¬ . There were several banks before indep endence of Bangladesh as follows: (1) The national bank of Pakistan (2)The bank of Vowalpur ltd. (3)The premier bank ltd. (4)The Habib bank ltd. (5)The commerce bank ltd. (6)The united bank ltd. (7)The union bank ltd. (8)The Muslim commercial bank ltd. (9)The standard bank ltd. (10) The Australasia bank ltd. (11) The eastern mercantile bank ltd. (12) The eastern banking corporation ltd. Bangladesh Bank nationalization Order promulgated on 26 March in 1972.After the liberation war the above 1st three banks were converted to The Sonali Bank, The 2nd two banks were converted to The Agrani Bank, the next two banks were converted to The Janata Bank, the next three banks were converted to The Rupali Bank, the next one bank was converted to The Pubali Bank and the last bank was converted to The Uttara Bank. Banks in Bangladesh have correspondent relationship with other banks in foreign countries in order to sell their services or to purchase services from them. A summary picture of the cou ntry's commercial banks is presented in the table on Banks of Bangladesh.Statement of Banks in the year 2011 Name of BankBranchesCorrespondent Banks Sonali Bank1307 (1)*369 Janata Bank898 (4)1160 Agrani Bank903980 Rupali Bank514 (1)160 Pubali Bank350433 Uttara Bank198300 National Bank66143 The City Bank 76252 United Commercial Bank79110 Arab Ã¢â¬â Bangladesh Bank62 (1)310 IFIC Bank54 (2)200 Islami Bank Bangladesh109650 Al-Baraka Bank Bangladesh34117 Eastern Bank2137 National Credit & Commerce Bank27232 Prime Bank20198 South-East Bank12190 Dhaka Bank12271 Al-Arafa Islami Bank 34127 Social Investment Bank1252 Dutch-Bangla Bank69 Mercantile Bank89 Standard Bank913 One Bank155EXIM Bank37 Premier Bank 411 First Security Bank13 Mutual Trust Bank214 Bank Asia 55 Trust Bank525 Bangladesh Commerce Bank2413 * Figures in parentheses indicate number of overseas branches 2. 5 Concluding Note TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s bank in Bangladesh has not developed over night. Before and after independence of Bangl adesh the concept of bank was developed in Bangladesh gradually. So I can easily say that bank history is as ancient as the human civilization. Chapter 03 EXIM Bank at a Glance 3. 1 Historical Background of EXIM Bank Ltd EXIM Bank Limited was established in 1999 under the leadership of Late Mr.Shahjahan Kabir, founder chairman who had a long dream of floating a commercial bank which would contribute to the socio-economic development of our country. He had a long experience as a good banker. A group of highly qualified and successful entrepreneurs joined their hands with the founder chairman to materialize his dream. Indeed, all of them proved themselves in their respective business as most successful star with their endeavor, intelligence, hard working and talent entrepreneurship. Among them, Mr. Nazrul Islam Mazumder became the honorable chairman after the demise of the honorable founder chairman.This bank starts functioning from 3rd August, 1999 with Mr. Alamgir Kabir, FCA as the advisor and Mr. Mohammad Lakiotullah as the Managing Director. Both of them have long experience in the financial sector of our country. By their pragmatic decision and management directives in the operational activities, this bank has earned a secured and distinctive position in the banking industry in terms of performance, growth, and excellent management. The authorized capital and paid up capital of the bank are Tk. 3500. 00 million and Tk 2677. 80 million respectively.The bank has migrated all of its conventional banking operation into Shariah based Islami banking since July/2004. 3. 2 Profile of EXIM Bank Ã¢â¬ ¢Legal Status. Public Limited Company Ã¢â¬ ¢Establish 1999 Ã¢â¬ ¢Incorporated 2nd June,1999 Ã¢â¬ ¢Activity Starts 3rd August,1999 Ã¢â¬ ¢Islamic Banking 1st July,2004 Ã¢â¬ ¢Listing with Dhaka Stock Exchange September, 2006. Listing with Chittagong Stock Exchange September, 2006. Ã¢â¬ ¢Inauguration of First Branch 3rd August, 1999. Ã¢â¬ ¢Authorized Capital TK. 10 00Million Ã¢â¬ ¢Profit TK 4967563969 million Ã¢â¬ ¢Total Asset TK 41793540. 962 million Ã¢â¬ ¢Shares TK 2233254288 million Ã¢â¬ ¢Paid up Capital TK 878. 5 Million Ã¢â¬ ¢Reserve Fund TK 569. 98 Million Ã¢â¬ ¢Number of Employees 1630 Persons Ã¢â¬ ¢No. of Branches 52 Ã¢â¬ ¢Proposed Branches 08 3. 3 Credit Rating oLong Term A-(Adequate Safety) oShort Term ST-3 (Good Grade) 3. 4 Vision and Mission ?To be the finest bank in the banking arena of Bangladesh under the Shariah guidelines. Contribute significantly to the national economy ?To maintain Corporate and business ethics. ?To become a trusted repository of customers' money and their financial advisor. ?To make our stock superior and rewarding to the customers/share holders. ?To display team spirit and professionalism. ?To have a Sound Capital Base. ?To provide high quality financial services in export and import trade. ?To provide excellent quality Customer service ?To provide standard financial services. ?Wealth maximizat ion 3. 5 Functions of the EXIM Bank Ltd ?The main task of the EXIM Bank Ltd. s to accept deposit from various customers through various accounts. ?Provides loans on easy terms and condition. ?The bank invest it fund in to profitable sector. ?It transfers money by Demand Draft, Pay Order, on line and Telegraph Transfer. ?The bank is doing the transaction of bill exchange, cheque etc. on behalf of the clients. ?EXIM Bank assists in the foreign exchange by issuing LC. ?Above all, EXIM Bank helps the businessmen financially by giving discount facility for bill of exchange and by providing the facility of letter of guarantee. 3. 6 Corporate CultureThis bank is one of the most disciplined Banks with a distinctive corporate culture. The bank believes in shared meaning, shared understanding and shared sense making. The employee of the bank can see and understand events, activities, objects and situation in a distinctive way. They mould their manners and etiquette, character individually to suit the purpose of the Bank and the needs of the customers who are of paramount importance to the bank. The people in the Bank see themselves as a tight knit team/family that believes in working together for growth.The corporate culture we belong has not been imposed; it has rather been achieved through our corporate conduct 3. 7 Human Resource Management of EXIM Bank Human resource is the fundamental asset of the organization. Human resource approach is concerned with the growth and development of people toward higher level of competency, creativity and fulfillment. Therefore, human resources development has been given its due importance in an environment thatÃ¢â¬â¢s values performance, teamwork, fairness and integrity, it has both quantities dimension .EXIM Bank recognizes that intellectual capital is the most important asset for a financial institution. Without proper and efficient human resources, no organization. The Bank believes that the professional competence Bank person al and its commitment for accomplishing assigned responsibilities are a first line of defense to prevent irregularities. Ã¢â¬ ¢The objectives of Human Resource Management of EXIM Bank are as follows: oConduction of job analysis. oPlanning employee needs and recruiting job candidate. oSelecting job candidates. Orienting and training of new employees. oManaging wages and salaries (compensating Employees). oProviding incentives and benefits. oAppraising performance. oCommunicating (Interview, counseling, disciplining) oTraining and developing managers. oBuilding employee commitment. 3. 8 Organizational Structure 3. 9 Management of Rajuk Avenue Branch Organ gram 3. 10 Management of EXIM Bank Ltd Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the work of organization member and of using all available resources to reach stated organizational goals.The strength of the bank depends of the strength of its management team. EXIM Bank is proud to have a team of high ly motivated, well-educated and experienced executive who have been contributing substantially to the continued progress of the bank. Managerial effectiveness has been measured in EXIM Bank in terms of come selected criteria such deposit mobilization, loans and advances made, loan recovery, profitabilityÃ¢â¬â¢s and productivity, it has been found that EXIM Bank is effective in respect of branch expansion, loan disbursement, loan recovery etc.With a short span of time, EXIM Bank has become one of the leading and most successful bank not only among the third generation banks but also it superseded many other bank and financial institutions belonging to second and even first generation banks from the point of view under the dynamic leadership of its management. Management is trying to support and assist well motivated and experienced affairs to run day to day affairs of the bank smoothly.For maintains quality management, its required to train up more official at head office and branc h level in respect of sanctioning, disbursement and recovery of credit, project appraisals, customer services etc 3. 11 Social Commitments 3. 11. 1 EXIM Bank Foundation and CSR Activities At least 2% of the annual profit of every year is put aside for the foundation to conduct Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) activities. The mainstream CSR activities that are carried out through this foundation are:- Ã¢â¬ ¢Healthcare service. Ã¢â¬ ¢Scholarship program for brilliant poor student. Ã¢â¬ ¢Education Promotion Scheme (Interest free loan). Helping people affected by natural calamities. Ã¢â¬ ¢Helping people in slum areas. Ã¢â¬ ¢Donation to educational institutions to setup computer lab. Ã¢â¬ ¢Beautification of Dhaka City. 3. 11. 1. 1 Healthcare service A 5 storied building having 10,000 sft floor space at 840 Kazi Para, Rokeya Sarani, Mirpur, Dhaka-1216 has been hired to set up EXIM Bank Hospital. The decoration of this hospital is going on in full swing. A doctor has been recr uited who is working as a resident director of the hospital. Other doctors and hospital staffs have been in the process of selection through recruitment notice already published in the national dailies.They will be appointed as soon as the decoration of the hospital is complete. 3. 11. 1. 2 Scholarship program for brilliant poor student This is a stipend package for poor and meritorious students that take care of the beneficiaries throughout their student life. EXIM Bank Scholarship Programme, launched in 2006 with 61 poor and meritorious students selected from different reputed educational institutions of Dhaka City including Govt. Laboratory High School, Viqarunnissa Noon School and College, Dhaka University, BUET, Dhaka Medical College, etc. nrolled as many as 1000 students from around 150 reputed educational institutions across the country by 31 December 2008. They are enrolled in the this programme to be taken care of for their whole educational life subject to their fulfilment of the eligibility criteria that include satisfactory academic results, non-involvement in student politics, financial insolvency etc. So far Tk. 19. 3 million has been disbursed as scholarship under this programme. 3. 11. 1. 3 Helping people affected by natural calamities Another vital area we are dealing with as part of our CSR activities is helping people survive natural calamities.Under this welfare programmer, EXIM Bank provides relief in cash and kind for flood, fire or cyclone victims and cold-stricken people. The aim of these CSR activities is to help the target group overcome their provisional handicap and contribute to the socio-economic growth as soon as possible. 3. 11. 1. 4 Education Promotion Scheme (Interest free loan) Under Education Promotion Scheme, quard or interest-free loan is provided for poor and meritorious students to help them bear monthly educational expenditure including academic expenses, food, accommodation, etc.The quard is disbursed to the selected s tudents in monthly installments till their accomplishing the master degree. Under this programme the students are required to repay the amount (only the principal amount) in long-term monthly installments after they have joined a confirmed job accomplishing their education properly. By 31 December 2008, Tk. 19. 7 million was sanctioned to take care of around 138 poor and meritorious students from a number of reputed educational institutions like Dhaka University, Chittagong University, Dhaka Medical College, BUET, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology etc. . 11. 1. 5 Helping people in slum areas Besides natural calamities, fire breaks out sometimes in slum areas that guts the shanties and renders the affected people totally helpless. In that situation, we help the victims fight against the hard days and return to normal life. 3. 11. 1. 6 Donation to educational institutions to setup computer lab We have donated to Dhaka University and Chi ttagong University to set up two computer labs that help the students of those universities acquire ICT knowledge. This will certainly help the students to be ready to take the challenges of this information society. 3. 11. 1. Beautification of Dhaka City In response to the call of the Dhaka City Corporation, EXIM Bank has been sharing a good portion of the mammoth task of beautifying the capital since 2005. To make the capital a modern city enriched with adequate urban amenities, EXIM Bank always joins hands with the government. 3. 12 Achievement 3. 12. 1 First private sector bank to open exchange house in UK In order to ensure delivery of smooth and most reliable remittance services to NRBs living and working in UK, Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited (EXIM Bank) has started operation of its wholly owned subsidiary Ã¢â¬Å"EXIM Exchange Company (UK) LtdÃ¢â¬ . n 30th June 2009 in London, United Kingdom, one of the oldest destinations for the expatriate Bangladeshis. It is the first exchange house owned by a Bangladeshi private bank. Bangladesh Bank Governor Dr. Atiur Rahman inaugurated the exchange house as the Chief Guest, while H. E. Dr. M. Sayeedur Rahman Khan, Honorable High Commissioner, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, was present in the program as special guest. Chairman of EXIM Bank and Director of EXIM Exchange Company (UK) Ltd. Mr.Md Nazrul Islam Mazumder presided over the program. Deputy High Commissioner Mr. Allamah Siddique, Director of EXIM Bank Mr. Muhammed Nurul Fazal Bulbul, Mrs Nasrin Islam, Mr. Abdullah-Al-Zahir Swapan, Mr. Md. Shahidullah, Managing Director of EXIM Bank Mr. Kazi Masihur Rahman and local elites were also present in the opening ceremony. With the opening of EXIM Exchange the Bangladeshi expatriates will now be able to send remittances to their family members back home within shortest possible time through online transfer to all the branches of EXIM Bank.EXIM Exchange Company (UK) Ltd is located at the Universal House of Wentworth Street London which is a very convenient location for the Bangladeshi community and business houses. Unlike any other exchange company operating in UK, as EXIM Exchange is completely owned and supervised by EXIM Bank under the approval of Bangladesh Bank and UK regulators, it is expected to be the most reliable and trusted Exchange House for the NRBs. 3. 12. 2 Implementation of the world renowned Core Banking Software (TEMENOS T24)All the branches of EXIM Bank have been using branch based banking software named PcBank2000 developed by Leads Corporation, Bangladesh. In order to replace this software with a centralized Shariah Based Islami Banking software, the bank management has made an agreement woth TEMENOS Switzerland to implement its world renowned Core Banking Software T24. Implementation of this software has been started at the end of the year 2007. A team comprising very skilled employees from both business and IT of the bank has been working day and night for implementing the Software. The team has been given training on the software from Chennai, India.Working very hard with the foreign consultants during the last one and half year, this team has successfully migrated our Motijheel branch and Head Office on 03/05/2009 after completing gap analysis, customization of the software and User Acceptance Test (UAT). The Motijheel branch and Head Office are now running on T24. This centralized software is capable enough to provide all sorts of electronic banking service to the valued customers through various electronic delivery channels. Bashundhara Branch has started to use this software from 17th March, 2010 3. 12. 3 Conversion from Conventional Banking to Shariah Based ISLAMI BankingIt is a great pleasure that by the grace of Almighty Allah, the bank migrated at a time all the branches from its conventional banking operation into Shariah based Islami banking operation without any trouble. Lot of uncertainties and adversities were there into this migration process. The officers and executives of our bank motivated the valued customers by counseling and persuasion in light with the spirit of Islam especially for the non-Muslim customers. Our IT division has done the excellent job of converting and fitting the conventional business processes into the processes based on Shariah.It has been made possible by following a systematic procedure of migration under the leadership of honorable Managing Director. 3. 13 Performance of EXIM Bank Ltd The business of banking consists of borrowing and lending. As in other businesses, operation must be based on capital but banks employ comparatively small of their own capital in relation to the total volume of their transaction. The purpose of capital on reserve accounts is primary to provide an ultimate cover against losses on loans investments. In Bangladesh, there are many types of banks which are formed as commercial banks.But above all, EXIM Bank of Bangladesh limited is a new generation of private commercial bank. The full abbreviation of EXIM Bank Ltd. The bank has got lending personalities business man and reputed industrialist as its sponsors. The bank will be immensely benefited from the valuable advice of the experienced sponsors of the bank. The late chairmen of the bank contribute much for the solid foundation of the bank at the initial stage. Unfortunately his untimely death caused a vacuum leadership of the bank. But within shortest possible time, the sponsors who in a position to select the next Chairman of the Bank.Performance of the EXIM Bank Ltd. During 2008 in all business arenas like deposit, investment and Foreign Exchange exceeded performance of the previous years. The Bank achieved satisfactory progress in all areas. Growth in deposit mobilization is 48. 44%, Investments 34. 73%, Import 54. 74%, and Export Business 39. 55%. 3. 14 Shariah Board The Board of directors has formed a Sharia Supervisory Board for the Bank. Their dut y is to monitor the entire BankÃ¢â¬â¢s transactional procedures, & assuring its Sharia compliancy.This Board consists of the following members headed by its Chairman The tasks of the Sharia supervisor in summary is replying to queries of the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s administration, staff members, shareholders, depositors, & customers, follow up with the Sharia auditors and provide them with guidance, submitting reports & remarks to the Fatwa & Sharia Supervision Board and the administration, participating in the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s training programs, participating in the supervision over the AlIqtisad AlIslami magazine, & handling the duty of being the General Secretary of the Board.Members of Shariah Council: Professor Moulana Mohammad Salah Uddin Mr. Md. Nazrul Islam Mazumder Moulana Mohammad Sadequl Islam Mr. A. K. M Nurul Fazal Bulbul Professor H. M. Shahidul Islam Barakaty Mr. Md. Abdul Mannan Mr. A. S. M. Fakhrul Ahsan Mr. Zubayer Kabir Hafez Moulana Mufti Mohammad Khair Ullah Mr. Abdullah A l-Zahir Sawpan Hafez Quari Moulana Mufti Mohammad Nur Uddin Mr. Kazi Masihur Rahman 3. 14. 1 Shariah Auditing This is the civil supervisory aspect that shapes the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s main feature.Its existence is part of the Sharia Supervision procedures. One of its main tasks is to check the Sharia compliancy in the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s transactional procedures in accordance to the Fatwas issued in that regard, under the guidanceoftheShariaSupervisor. The Sharia auditor is assigned the task of revising the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s transactional procedures throughout the year to check the extent to which the staff members and the different departments have abided by the regulations, advices, and Fatwas issued by the Fatwa & Sharia Supervision Board, forums, & banking conferences.As well as, assuring that all the contracts that states a right for the Bank or an obligation on the Bank is certified by the Fatwa & Sharia Supervision Board. Moreover, the Sharia Auditing submits periodic reports to the Sharia Su pervisor in order to be proposed to the Fatwa & Sharia Supervision Board to state what it finds appropriate in that regard. 3. 14. 2 Banking with shariah principles Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited is the 1st bank in Bangladesh that has converted all of its operations of conventional banking into shariah-based banking since July/2004.We offer banking services for Muslims and non-Muslims alike allowing our customers choice and flexibility in their savings and investments. Our products are approved by our Shariah Board comprising of veteran Muslim scholars of our country who are expert in all matters of Islamic finance. The process by which Noriba's investments are designed and executed allows the Bank to offer a combination of Sharia compliance and capital markets expertise that is unique throughout the world.Noriba is committed to the strict adherence to the requirements of the Sharia as a result of the Bank's sole focus on Sharia-compliant investments and the full supervisi on of its financial products and transactions by the Noriba Sharia Board. Noriba experts specifically design each of the Bank's investment vehicles with the approval of the Noriba Sharia Board. Once the given product or transaction has been arranged, the Noriba Sharia Board carefully screens it for compliance before giving final approval for its implementation.This control mechanism guarantees that all aspects of Noriba's final products and banking transactions are in adherence with the guidelines of the Sharia. 3. 15 SWIFT Services The SWIFT Service helped in sending and receiving the messages and instructions related to NOSTRO Account operations and L/C related matters. The banks have brought 11 of branches under SWIFT network. Other branches will come under the network hopefully by the 2005. SWIFT aims to provide a prompt and efficient service to help you gain the most from our products. As a part of this service a documentation set is supplied with each product.This Guide is a p art of that documentation set and contains as comprehensive and as up-to-date a description of the product as possible. 3. 15. 1 SWIFT Network SWIFT or the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication is a cooperative institution established in 1973 by a group of banks to manage their international telecommunications activities. Now over 2900 member banks, and regularly processes in excess of three million banking messages per day between banks in over 150 countries around the world own SWIFT. 3. 15. 2 SWIFT is the logical choice for most international financial transactionsWith over 5900 connections among the world's major banks, the chance is high that for any given transaction the bank you are dealing with is a SWIFT user. The SWIFT network provides facilities for ensuring that messages are transmitted in standard, internationally accepted formats, simplifying processing and permitting end to end automation of many banking transactions. SWIFT is highly secure, with elaborate mechanisms to ensure that information remains confidential, authentic and intact. With an extremely low unit transaction cost, SWIFT is nearly always the most cost-effective means of transmitting an international message. . 15. 3 SWIFT Messages In addition to its role as network provider, SWIFT is responsible for defining and maintaining standards for international banking telecommunications. Standards are necessary to ensure that banks understand the messages that they send to each other, and to allow them to process messages automatically. A. SWIFT message also comprises: ?Header containing the addresses of sending and receiving banks, the Message Type, Message priority, Delivery Monitoring Field, Obsolescence Period, Banking Priority. ?The usage and contents of SWIFT Message Headers and Trailers are more fully treated in the SWIFT.B. The advantages of SWIFT Message Types are: ?Predictability: Depending on the type of message, the format of the message can be predicted exactly, simplifying automation. ?Diversity: A specific Message Type exists for most banking activities. In order to use SWIFT Message Types and the SWIFT network, however, banks have to employ strict controls on the ways that messages are prepared to ensure that standards are respected and that the control Header and Trailer are complete and accurate. For this reason, most banks employ specialized computer software, such as PC Connect, to perform message preparation and processing. . 16 ATM Network The bank has already floated tender in the national dailies to setup a network of 60 ATMs and 350 POS machines. The job of ATM interfacing with the Core Banking Software is going on. Insha-Allah, by the end of this year, at least 10 ATMs will come under our own ATM network. 3. 17 List of Branches Dhaka Division ASHUGANJ BRANCH Address: Haji Zahirul Haque Munshi Shoping Complex, Ashugonj, Brahmanbaria. Phone: 01713-063433 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08528-7456ASHULIA BRANCH Addre ss: Rifat Square Plaza, Jamgora, Ashulia, Dhaka. Phone: 7789978,01755-583690 Email: [emailÃ protected] om Fax: 7789480 BANANI BRANCH Address: Kazi's Haritage Road # 11, House # 49, Block # H, Banani, Dhaka. Phone: 02-8837871-3, 8837874, 01713-040588,01755-584939. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 02-8837875BASHUNDHARA ROAD BRANCH Address: KA-11/4, Bashundhara Road, Badda, Dhaka-1212. Phone: 02-8415154, 01730-357952 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 02-8413883 BOARD BAZAR BRANCH Address: Afzal Tower, Board Bazar, National University,Gazipur. Phone: 9293053, 01713-229344. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 9293054DHANMONDI BRANCH Address: House # 4/A, Plot # 4, Road # 16 (Old-27) Dhanmondi, Dhaka.Email: [emailÃ protected] com ELEPHANT ROAD BRANCH Address: 218, Elephant Road, Bata Signal, Dhaka Ã¢â¬â 1205. Phone: 02-9667097-8, 01714-021767. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-9667267FARIDPUR BRANCH Address: Faridpur Plaza,10, Thana Road, Faridpur. Phone: 0631-6117 0, 61128, 61174. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0631-61182 GAZIPUR CHOWRASTA BRANCH Address: Nasir Super Market(1st Floor), Chandana Chowrasta, Gazipur, Dhaka. Phone: 02-9263537, 9263538, 9256492, 01713-145498 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-9256493 GULSHAN BRANCH Address: 75, Gulshan Avenue, Gulshan-1, Dhaka.Phone: 02-9862262, 9886296, 8819711, 01711-404821 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-8818703 HEAD OFFICE CORPORATE BRANCH Address: Symphony, Plot# SE(F):9, Road# 142, Gulshan Avenue, Dhaka. Phone: 02-8828985, 9884753, 9889567. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 02-8828962IMAMGONJ BRANCH Address: Haji Abdul Kader Mansion, 139 Chawk Mogoltuliy, Imamgonj, Dhaka Phone: 02-7315527-8, 01730-019954 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-7315530 KARWAN BAZAR BRANCH Address: BGMEA Complex (2nd Floor), 23/1 Panthapath Link Road, Karwan Bazar, Dhaka. Phone: 02-8140204-6.Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 02-8140200KERANIGONJ BRANCH Address: Rashed Iron Mar ket, Bond Dakpara, Zinzira Highway Road, Keranigonj, Dhaka. Phone: 02-7763691,02-7763692, 01730-706768. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 02-7763692 MALIBAGH BRANCH Address: 484, DIT Road, Malibagh, Dhaka Ã¢â¬â 1217. Phone: 02-9338578, 8319076, 01730-069695 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-9357057 MAWNA BRANCH Address: Kitab Ali Plaza, Mawna Chowrasta, Sreepur, Gazipur. Phone: 06825 Ã¢â¬â 52359, 06825-52831, 06825-52830, 01713-099837, 01713-361833. Email: [emailÃ protected] om Fax: 06825-52359 MIRPUR BRANCH Address: Srayoshe Tower, Plot # 7, Rokeya Swarani, 10 No. Crossing, Mirpur, Dhaka Ã¢â¬â 1212. Phone: 02-8054226, 8056776, 8033801. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-8035668 MOTIJHEEL BRANCH Address: Sharif Mansion, 56-57,Motijheel C/A, Dhaka. Phone: 9568534, 9552800, 9568093, 9554988, 9554988, Dir-9553778 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-9569983 NARAYANGONJ BRANCH Address: 50, SM Maleh Road, Sattar Tower, Tanbazar, Narayangonj Phone: 764 0213, 7640214, 01711-439385 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 7640215NAWABPUR BRANCHAddress: 198/1, Nawabpur Road, Dhaka Ã¢â¬â 1100 Phone: 7125306, 7125307 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-7125308 NARIA BRANCH Address: Janakallan Bipony (1st Floor), Naria Bazar, Shariatpur. Phone: 0601-59135, 0601-59136, 01730-018970, 01730-018971 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0601-159124NEW ESKATON BRANCH Address: 27/1, New Eskaton Road, Dhaka. Phone: 02-8314159, 8314435, 9352854 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-9349196 PALTAN BRANCH Address: Swadesh Tower, 41/6, Purana Paltan, Box Culvert Road, Dhaka-1000. Phone: 02-9513573, 02-9513574. Email: [emailÃ protected] comFax: 02-9513572PANCHABOTI BRANCH Address: Atlanta Plaza (2nd Floor), Panchaboti, Fatullah, Narayangonj. Phone: 02-7672807,01730-001241 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 02-7672806 PANTHAPATH BRANCH Address: 19/2, West Panthapath, North Dhanmondi, Dhaka. Phone: 02-8124261, 9145911, 8141764, 9102671(E XP),9101334(IMP), 9101332(INV). Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-8126191RAJUK AVENUE BRANCH Address: 9, D. I. T Avenue, Ali Bhaban, Motijheel C/A, Dhaka- 1000 Phone: 02-9556884, 9565397, 9567115, 01713-164698 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-9555132 SAT MASJID ROAD BRANCHAddress: 47, Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka Ã¢â¬â 1209. Phone: 02-8118680, 9142073, 8141249, 01730-061460. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-8142232SAVAR BRANCH Address: B-71, Rana Tower,Bazar Road, Savar, Dhaka. Phone: 7742883, 01755-575408. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 7742882 SHIMRAIL BRANCH Address: Haji Ahasanullah Super Market, Chittagnong RD, Siddirgonj, Narayangonj. Phone: 7694672-3 (EXT. 101), 01714-038149, 01819-253283. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 7694268SONARGAON BRANCH Address: Zohra Mansion, Mograpara, Sonargaon, Narayangonj. Phone: 0672-356103, 0672-356205, 01755-584938Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0672-356155 UTTARA BRANCH Address: House # 61/A , Road # 7, Sector # 4, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka. Phone: 02-8919785. 8952847,01714-041406 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-2-8952838 Chittagong Division AGRABAD BRANCH Address: Mawla Chember, 6 Agrabad C/A, Chittagong. Phone:031-727657,727658,2510733, 2511264,01711-898224 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 031-715796BAHADDARHAT BRANCH Address: Khaza Super Market, 680/A, Arakan Road, Bahoddarhat, Chittagong. Phone:031-2555056,031-2555058, 01730031489. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 031-2555057BASURHAT BRANCH Address: Jharna Shopping Complex, Basurhat Bazar, Companygonj, Noakhali. Phone: 03223-56060, 03223-56073, 01755-594105, 01755-594112. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 03223-56575CDA AVENUE BRANCH Address: Commerce View Complex,191, East Nasirabad, Chittagong. Phone: 031-652074, 657609, 01713396538 (G. B. Dept), 01730452371 (FEX Dept). Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 031-653026. CHHAGALNAIYA BRANCH Address: H. S Plaza, Matin Road, Chhagalnaiya, Feni. Phone : 03322-78018, 01713-193388. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 03322-78188. CHOWMUHANI BRANCHAddress: 60/231, D. B. Road, Chowmuhani,Begumgonj, Noakhali. Phone: 0321 Ã¢â¬â 52700, 51034, 01714-084311. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0321 Ã¢â¬â 51034. COMILLA BRANCH Address: Goni Bhuiyan Mansion, A. K Fazlul Haque Road, Monoharpur, Comilla. Phone: 081 Ã¢â¬â 61850,01713-396537, 01973-229330 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 081-61722FENI BRANCH Address: Chistiya Trade Center, 308-310, S. S. K. Road, Feni . Phone: 0331-74060-1, 01730-001242. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0331-74062 KHATUNGONJ BRANCH Address: Union Square Building, 1078, Ramjoy Mahajan Lane, Khatungonj, Chittagong.Phone: 031-615544, 610711,2851291, 01711-898223, 01713-229384 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 031-639080LAKSHAM BRANCH Address: Sufia Complex, Doulotgonj Bazar, Laksham, Comilla. Phone: 08032 Ã¢â¬â 51333, 01711-726302 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08032-51252 MODAFFARGO NJ BRANCH Address: Alam Highway Supermarket (1st Floor), Modafforgonj, Laksham, Comilla. Phone: 01730-061455, 01730-061456 Email: [emailÃ protected] com PAHARTOLI BRANCH Address: Noor Jahan Tower, Alanker More, Pahartoli, Chittagong. Phone: 031-2771695, 2771696, 01714-166966 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 031-750065SHITAKUNDA BRANCH Address: KDS Logistics Building, Sonaichhori, Sitakunda, Chittagong. Phone: 03042-51093, 01713-229338. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 031-2528900 SONAIMURI BRANCH Address: Mohammadia Super Market, Sonaimuri Bazar, Sonaimuri, Noakhali. Phone: 03227-51057, 03227-51058, 01711-750610, 01711-885754 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 03227-5105 THAKUR BAZAR KRISHI / SME BRANCH Address: Toffazal Hossain Chowdhury Market, Thakur Bazar, Shahrasti, Chandpur. Phone: 08427-56873, 08427-56878, 01730-373897. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08427-56874 Rajshahi DivisionBOGRA BRANCH Address: Sheikh Mansion, Baragola, Bogra Phone: 051-60702, 60703, 6 0705 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-51-60704 RAJSHAHI BRANCH Address: Mollah Super Market, Zero Point, Shaheb Bazar, Rajshahi. Phone: 0721-772004,772005 ,01730-097272. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0721-772004 Syhlet Division BEANIBAZAR BRANCH Address: Zaman Plaza(1st Floor), Beanibazar, Sylhet. Phone: 08223-56108,08223-56109, 01730-019951, 01730-452002 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08223-56110 BISWANATH BRANCH Address: Al Madina Complex, Puran Bazar, Jagannathpur Road, Biswanath, Sylhet.Phone: 08224-56219,08224-56218,01730-735340 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08224-56217 FENCHUGONJ BRANCH Address: Samad Plaza, Fenchugonj Bazar, Sylhet. Phone: 08226-56290 ,08226-56163. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08226-56162 GOALABAZAR BRANCH Address: Abdul Karim Mansion, South Goalabazar, Osmaninagar, Sylhet. Phone: 08242-56255, 08242-56256,01730-735341 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08242-56254 GOLAPGONJ BRANCH Address: Noor Mansion, Golapgonj, Sylhet. Phone: 08227-56461, 08227-56462, 01730-097268 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08227-56463MOULVI BAZAR BRANCHAddress: Al-Aksha Shopping Centre,Kusumbag Area, Moulvibazar. Phone: 0861-63007,63008, 01714-167459 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0861-63009 NOBIGONJ BRANCH Address: Bangla Tower, Sherpur Road, Nobigonj, Hobigonj. Phone: 08328-56526,01730-001240 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 08328-56528SYLHET BRANCH Address: Al-Hamra Shopping City, Zinda Bazar, Sylhet. Phone: 0821-724413, 0821-2831208, 01714-001964 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 880-821-725070 Khulna Division KHULNA BRANCH Address: A. Hossain Plaza 4, Sir Iqbal Road, Khulna. Phone: 041-2831470-2, 01730-018183Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 041-2831473JESSORE BRANCH Address: 37, M. K. Road, Jessore. Phone: 0421 Ã¢â¬â 67980-2, 01713-400273. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0421-67983 KUSHTIA BRANCH Address: Rajob Ali Market, 152, N. S. Road, Kushtia. Phone: 071-71625, 73866, 71526. Email: [e mailÃ protected] com Fax: 071-61158BARISAL BRANCH Address: 105, Nasim Biswash Lane, Sadar Road, Barisal. Phone: 0431-2177080,2177081,01714-178882. Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0431-63767 DINAJPUR BRANCH Address: Northern Plaza, Goneshtola, Dinajpur. Phone: +880-531-61880, Email: [emailÃ protected] comFax: +880-531-61770. RANGPUR BRANCH Address: 268, Shah Amanat Shopping Complex, Jahaj Company More, Station Road, Rangpur. Phone: 0521 -61214, 0521- 61215 Email: [emailÃ protected] com Fax: 0521 -61214 Chapter 04 Theoretical Aspect of Credit Management and Credit Policy 4. 1 Definition of Credit Policy Policy entails projected course of action. EXIM Bank has its own policy granting credit although credit is always a matter of judgment applying common sense in the light of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experience. A sound credit policy includes among other things safety of funds invested vis-a-vis profitability of the bank.Encouraging maximum number of small loans is better than concentrati on in a particular type of advances, which ensures sufficient liquidity with least incidence of bad debts. It has to be borne in mind that a good loan allowed to a properly selected borrower is half collected. In order to make a good loan there should have a good loan policy. 4. 1. 2Purposes of Credit Policy There are some objectives behind a written credit policy of Uttara Bank that are as follows: ? To provide a guideline for giving loan. ?Prompt response to the customer need. ?Shorten the procedure of giving loan. Reduce the volume of work from top level management. ?Delegation of authority of work from top level of management. ?To check and balance the operational activities 4. 1. 3 Formulation of a Credit Policy One of questions that should arise in a discussion of credit is who should formulate the policy. Although the ultimate responsibilities lay at the highest level in the organization i. e. the board of directors. Yet the actual drafting shall have to be done by the senior lending office in consultations with the chief executive officer and with contribution from senior officers, associates and subordinates.Obviously the level of origin will vary with the size and structure of the organization. The matter then referred to the board for approval after careful examination consideration and discussion. 4. 1. 4 Essential Components of a Sound Credit Policy There can be some variations based on the needs of a particular organization, but at least the following areas should be covered in any comprehensive statement of credit policy and EXIM BankÃ¢â¬â¢s policy also covers these areas: 1.Legal consideration: The bankÃ¢â¬â¢s legal lending limit and other constraints should be set forth to avoid inadvertent violation of banking regulations. 2. Delegation of authority: Each individual authorized to extend credit should know precisely how much and under what conditions he or she may commit the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s funds. These authorities should be approved, at lea st annually, by written resolution of the board of directors and kept current at all times. 3. Types of credit extension: One of the most substances parts of a loan is a delineation of which types of loans are acceptable and which type are not. . Pricing: In any profit motivated endeavor, the price to be charged for the goods or services rendered is of paramount without it, individuals have few guidelines for quoting retag or fees, and the variations resulting from human nature will be a source of customer dissatisfaction. 5. Market Area: Each bank should establish its proper market area, based upon, among other things, the size and sophistication of its organization its capital standpoint, defining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s market area is probably more important in the lending function than in any other aspect of banking. 6.Loan Standard: This is a definition of the types of credit to be expended, wherein the qualitative standards for acceptable loans are set forth. 7. Credit Granting procedure s: This subject may be covered in separate manual, and usually is in larger banks. At any rate, it should not be overlooked because proper procedures are essential in loan establishing policy and standards. Without proper procedure for granting credit and constant policing to ensure that these procedures are meticulous carried out, the best conceived loan policy will not function and inevitable, problems will develop. 4. 1. 5 Lending GuidelinesAs the bank has a rate of non-performing loans. Banks risk taking applied should be contained and our focus should be to maintain a credit portfolio keeping in mind of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s capital adequacy and recovery strength. Thus bankÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy will be invigorating loan processing steps including identifying , measuring , containing risks as well as maintaining a balance portfolio through minimizing loan concentration , encouraging loan diversification , expanding product range , streamlining security , insurance etc. as buffer again unex pected cash flow . 4. 1. 6 Focus on Industry and Business SegmentIndustry segment focuses on Textile, Pharmaceuticals, Agro-based, Food and allied, Telecommunication, Power generation and distribution, Health care, Entertainment Services, Chemicals, Transport, Infrastructure development, Linkage industry, Information technology, Ceramics, Others as decided from tome to time. And business segment focuses on Distribution, Brick field, Rice mill/ flour mill/ oil mill, Work order, Yarn trading, Cloth merchant, Industrial spares, Hardware, Electronic and electrical goods, Construction materials, Fish trading, Grocery, Wholesale/ retail, Others as dedicated from time to time . 1. 7 Types of Credit Facilities: Bank will go for ?Term financing for new project had BMRE of existing projects (large, medium, SME). ?Working capital for industries, trading services and others (large, medium, SME). ?Trade finance for import and export ?Lease finance ?Small loan for traders, micro enterprise and ot her productive small venture. ?Consumer finance ?Fee business 4. 2 Credit Management As EXIM bank is providing credit facility out of its total available funds, it has to manage these credits very efficiently.An efficient credit management system comprises many things and this cover the pre-sanction activities to post-sanction activities. Credit management is important as it helps the banks and financial institutions to understand various dimensions of risk involved in different credit transactions. At the pre-sanction stage, credit management helps the sanctioning authority to decide whether to lend or not to lend, what should be the loan price, what should be the extent of exposure, what should be the appropriate credit facility, what are the various facilities, what are the various risk mitigation tools to put a cap on the risk level.At the post-sanctioning stage, the bank can decide about the depth of the review of renewal, frequency of review, periodicity of the grading, and ot her precautions to be taken. Having considered the significance of credit risk, it becomes imperative for the banking system to carefully develop credit management. For this reason, the bank is maintaining a division which is well-known as credit division. 4. 2. 1 Process of Credit ManagementCredit Management Policy for any commercial bank must have been prepared in accordance with the Policy Guidelines of Bangladesh BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Focus Group on Credit and Risk Management with some changes to meet particular bankÃ¢â¬â¢s internal needs. Credit management must be organized in such a process that the bank can minimize its losses for payment of expected dividend to the shareholders. The purpose of this process is to provide directional guidelines that will improve the risk management culture, establish minimum standards for segregation of duties and responsibilities, and assist in the ongoing improvement of concerned bank.The guidelines for credit management may be organized into the following sections: 4. 2. 2Policy guidelines a. Lending guidelines b. Credit assessment and risk grading c. Approval authority d. Segregation of duties e. Internal control and compliance 4. 2. 3 Program guidelines a. Approval process b. Credit administration c. Credit monitoring d. Credit recovery Now the guidelines are discussed in the following: 4. 2. 4 Policy guidelines a. Lending guidelines: The lending guidelines include the following: ? Industry and Business Segment Focus Types of loan facilities ? Single borrowers/ group limits/ syndication ? Lending caps ? Discouraged business types As a minimum, the followings are discouraged: oMilitary equipment/ weapons finance oHighly leveraged transactions oFinance of speculative investments oLogging, mineral extraction/ mining, or other activity that is ethically or environmentally sensitive oLending to companies listed on CIB black list or known oCounter parties in countries subject to UN sanctions oLending to holding companies. b. Cr edit Assessment and Risk Grading:A thorough credit and risk assessment should be conducted prior to the granting of loans, and at least annually thereafter for all facilities. Credit Applications should summaries the results of the risk assessment and include, as a minimum, the following details: ? Environment or social risk inputs ?Amount and type of loan (s) proposed ?Purpose of loans ?Loan structure ( tenor, covenants, repayment schedule, interest) ? Security arrangement ?Any other risk or issue ?Risk triggers and action plan-condition prudent, etc.Risk is graded as per Lending Risk Analysis (LRA), Bangladesh BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Guidelines of classification of loans and advances. c. Approval Authority: Approval authority may be as the following: ? Credit approval authority has been delegated to Branch Manager, Credit Committee by the MD/ Board ? Delegated approval authorities shall be reviewed annually by MD/ Board. MD/ Board: ?Approvals must be evidenced in writing. Approval records m ust be kept on file with credit application ? The aggregate exposure to any borrower or borrowing group must be used to determine the approval authority required. Any credit proposal that does not comply with Lending Guidelines, regardless of amount, should be referred to Head Office for approval. d. Segregation of Duties: Banks should aim at segregating the following lending function: ? Credit approval/ risk management ?Relationship management/ marketing ?Credit administration e. Internal Control and Compliance: Banks must have a segregated internal audit/ control department charged with conducting audits of all branches. 4. 2. 5 Program guidelines a. Approval process: The following diagram illustrates an example of the approval process: b. b.Cre